【媒库文选】热爱古典音乐无需学位

You Don't Need a Degree to Love Classical Music 热爱古典音乐无需学位

John Mauceri 约翰·毛切里

Of the many questions I'm often asked about classical music because of my decades conducting orchestras, the easiest one to answer is, “How can I learn to love it?” My answer is: “You already do.”

Many people have been told that they need to be classically trained, or incredibly smart, to “get it.” But when 12,000 Londoners flocked to Green Park to hear the dress rehearsal of Handel's “Music for the Royal Fireworks” in 1749, no one in the crowd had a master's degree in music. Tchaikovsky had a wide audience in mind in 1888 when he composed “The Sleeping Beauty,” just as Prokofiev did when he wrote “Cinderella” in the early 1940s.

Classical music deals with adult emotions and ideas, but you can still love aspects of it as a kid. Pre-adolescents can hear dramatically swirling melodies and throbbing rhythms, and if they are attracted to what they have heard, their understanding will only increase as years pass by.

As a boy growing up in New York City in the 1950s, I first heard the overture to Wagner's “The Flying Dutchman” as the theme music for a science-fiction television show called “Captain Video,” and it was absolutely thrilling. Only later in life did I learn it was music that described a supernatural storm that tossed a ghost across endless seas in the hopes of finding a woman who would love him and break the curse of his eternal wandering.

When I first conducted the opera, that childhood imprint of the music from “Captain Video” was still somewhere in the farthest reaches of my mind. Music can be written to evoke a very specific sound, mood or scene, yet can be heard differently in different contexts. Wagner's overture gets our attention with a heroic-sounding melody from the horns and then a depiction of a stormy sea, and as a kid, I knew the hero was Captain Video. As an adult, I understood that, far from being merely heroic, the very first notes were meant as the wail of a ghost seeking redemption. The notes were the same, but I certainly was not, and yet there was comfort in revisiting something from my childhood with the benefit of an adult's knowledge.

But does it still happen today? That question was answered for me last summer when my two great-nephews, 8-year-old twins, were playing with Legos. One of them had successfully completed a task and began singing the Hallelujah Chorus from Handel's “Messiah.” The other joined in, singing in innocent merriment. They kept going well into the more complex development of the simple melodies, but the words were different. “What's that?” I asked. The answer: “Captain Underpants!”

A time will come when they hear a performance of Handel's “Messiah” and the vague memories of their youth will be transformed and connected to classical music intended to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus. Still, two boys born in 2010 absolutely knew that a composition from 1741 was and continues to be music of triumph and joy. No one is teaching them “how to love classical music.”

The music is there, and it waits for you. You can come to it at any point in your life. There are so many different kinds, spanning a relatively short period of history. When you find that you don't like something, you are in great company: the company of people who love classical music, because no one loves it all.

When you hear music that calls out to you, however, it will tell you something about yourself. Once you enter its domain and it enters yours, it will become a life partner, always illuminating who you are and who you were. It will be beautiful because it is yours.

由于我指挥管弦乐队几十年,常有人问我很多关于古典音乐的问题。其中最容易回答的一个是:“我怎么才能学着热爱古典音乐?”我的回答是:“你已经热爱它了。”

很多人都听说,需要接受古典音乐训练或是极其聪明,才能“懂它”。然而,1749年1.2万伦敦人涌向格林公园聆听亨德尔《皇家焰火》的全程彩排时,听众中没人有音乐硕士学位。1888年柴可夫斯基为《睡美人》谱曲时,想要面向的是普罗大众;20世纪40年代初,普罗科菲耶夫为《灰姑娘》作曲时也是如此。

古典音乐表达的是成年人的情感和想法,但儿童也能爱上古典音乐的某些方面。十岁左右的少年听到的可能是跌宕起伏的旋律和跳动的节奏,如果他们被听到的这些所吸引,随着年岁渐长,理解只会加深。

上世纪50年代,我还只是纽约市的一个小男孩,从一部名为《电视游侠》的科幻电视剧主题曲中第一次听到瓦格纳歌剧《漂泊的荷兰人》的序曲,那绝对让人激动不已。长大后我才知道,这段音乐描述了一场超自然风暴,裹挟着一个幽灵穿越无边无际的海洋,幽灵希望找到会爱上他、解除他永远漂泊诅咒的女性。

当我第一次指挥这出歌剧时,《电视游侠》主题曲留下的童年印记仍存留在心灵深处。谱写乐曲时可能为唤起某个特别具体的声音、情绪或场景,而聆听乐曲时可能是在各自不同的环境有各自不同的感受。瓦格纳的序曲引起我们注意的是号角吹奏出充满英雄气概的旋律,然后是对风暴中海洋的描绘,而孩提时,我只知道英雄是“电视游侠”。成年后,我才明白最开始的这段乐曲远不只有英雄气概,也是一个寻求救赎的幽灵的哀嚎。乐曲还是同样的乐曲,而我当然不是当年的我。带着成年后的知识重拾童年回忆,让人感到欣慰。

但现在还会是这样吗?2018年夏天,我的这个问题得到回答。当时我的两个孙辈在玩乐高,他们是一对8岁的双胞胎。其中一个成功完成后开始唱亨德尔《弥赛亚》中的《哈利路亚大合唱》。另一个也天真欢快地一起唱。他们一口气唱到这段简单旋律中较难的展开部分,但歌词完全不同。我问:“你们唱的是什么?”他们答道:“内裤队长!”

终有一天,他们听到演奏亨德尔的《弥赛亚》时,儿时的模糊记忆会发生变化,与原本颂唱耶稣复活的古典音乐联系起来。但这两个出生于2010年的孩子肯定知道,这段创作于1741年的乐曲曾经是,而且一直是表达胜利和喜悦的音乐。而没有人教他们“怎么热爱古典音乐”。

音乐就在那里,它等待着你。你可以在生命中的任何节点走进音乐。音乐有那么多种类型,在历史中存在的时间相对较短。如果你发现自己不喜欢某些音乐,那你会找到同好:同样热爱古典音乐的人,因为没人能什么都喜欢。

然而,当你听到能引发共鸣的音乐,它会帮你认清自我。一旦你走进音乐的世界,音乐也走进你的世界,它就会成为终身伴侣,总能说明你现在是谁,曾经是谁。它会很美好,因为它是属于你的音乐。(张熠柠译自美国《华尔街日报》网站9月14日文章)